Before reading the article, let’s read a joke:  steel


just for fun

The warden of the prison felt sorry for one of his inmates because every weekend on Visitor’s Day, most of the prisoners had family members and friends coming, but poor George always sat alone in his cell.

So one Visitor’s Day, the warden called George to his office and said, “I notice you’ve never had any visitors, George.” Sympathetic, he put his hand on George’s shoulder. “Tell me, don’t you have any friends or family?”

George replied, “Oh, sure I do, Warden. It’s just that they’re all in here!”      lol    The next joke is at the end. 

OK. We are back to the topic now.

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1. the concept of steel

Steel is an alloy of iron, carbon and a small amount of other elements. Steel is a material of various shapes, sizes, and properties that are needed to make steel ingots, billets, or steel by press working. Steel is an indispensable important material for national construction and modernization. It is widely used and has a wide variety of products. According to the different shapes of sections, it is generally divided into four categories: profiles, plates, pipes, and metal products. In order to facilitate the production and ordering of steel products, Supply and do a good job of management, is divided into heavy rail, light rail, large steel, medium-sized steel, small steel, cold-formed steel, high-quality steel, wire rod, plate, steel plate, electrical steel, strip steel, no Seam pipe, welded steel pipe, metal products and other varieties.

Steel is an alloy of iron, carbon and small amounts of other elements. Stainless steel or anti-corrosive alloy steel with a chromium content of 10.5% or more is a generic term for this type of metal. It should be remembered that stainless steel does not mean that the steel does not rust or corrode, but that it is much more resistant to corrosion than alloys that do not contain chromium. In addition to chromium metal, other metal elements such as nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, etc. can also be added to the alloy to change the properties of the alloy steel to produce stainless steels of different grades and different properties. Because of the difference in application purpose and location, carefully selecting the most suitable tool for the manufacture of stainless steel is crucial for improving the work efficiency and the probability of success for a particular job. The advantages of different metal elements in the tool. Simply put: Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. The other ingredients are to differentiate the properties of the steel. The following lists the important steels in alphabetical order. They contain the following components:

Carbon – present in all steels and is the most important hardening element. To help increase the strength of steel, we usually want to have more than 0.5% carbon in tool-grade steel and high-carbon steel.

Chromium – Increased wear resistance, hardness, and most importantly, corrosion resistance, with more than 13% considered stainless steel. Even though it is called, all steel will rust if not properly maintained.

Manganese – An important element that contributes to texture formation, increased sturdiness, strength, and abrasion resistance. The internal deoxidation of the steel during heat treatment and coiling occurs in most steels for knife and shear except A-2, L-6 and CPM 420V.

Molybdenum – A carbonizing agent that prevents the steel from becoming brittle, maintains the strength of the steel at high temperatures, appears in many steels, and air-hardening steels (such as A-2, ATS-34) always contain 1% or more Molybdenum, so that they can harden in the air.

Nickel – Maintains strength, corrosion resistance, and toughness. Appears in L-6\AUS-6 and AUS-8.

Silicon – Helps increase strength. Like manganese, silicon is used to maintain the strength of steel during the production of steel.

Tungsten – Enhanced abrasion resistance. Tungsten is mixed with a suitable proportion of chromium or manganese for the manufacture of high speed steel. High-speed steel M-2 contains a large amount of tungsten.

Vanadium – Increases wear resistance and ductility. A vanadium carbide is used to make stripe steel. Vanadium is contained in many kinds of steel, among which M-2, Vascowear, CPM T440V and 420VA contain a large amount of vanadium. The biggest difference between BG-42 and ATS-34 is that the former contains vanadium.

2. Production method of steel

    Most steel products are processed by pressure to plastically deform the processed steel (blanks, ingots, etc.). According to the different processing temperature of steel, it can be divided into two kinds of cold processing and hot processing. The main processing methods of steel are:

    Rolling: The process of passing a metal blank through the gaps (various shapes) of a pair of rotating rolls, and the method of press processing, which reduces the cross section of the material due to the compression of the rolls, increases the length. This is the most commonly used production method for the production of steel. Production profiles, plates, pipes. Sub-cold rolling, hot rolling.

    Forging: A method of pressure processing that uses the reciprocating impact of a hammer or the pressure of a press to change the blank into the shape and size we want. Generally divided into free forging and die forging, often used to produce large sections, open blanks and other larger size of the material.

    Pull dial: It is the processing method that the rolled metal blanks (types, tubes, products, etc.) are drawn through the die holes to reduce the length of the cross-section and are mostly used for cold working.

    Extrusion: It is a method of processing a finished product with the same shape and size by using a metal in a sealed extrusion and applying pressure at one end to allow the metal to be extruded from a prescribed die hole. It is mostly used to produce non-ferrous metal materials.


happy ending:

A man was at the doctor’s office. “Every time I drink a cup of coffee, Doctor, I have a stabbing pain in my right eye. What should I do?” he asked .
“Take the spoon out of your cup. ” answered the doctor.   lol
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Doris Wu

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